Refresh Important Technical Terms

1.Proprietary vs Open source

2.Confidentiality is a set of rules that limits access to information,

3.Integrity is the assurance that the information is trustworthy and accurate

4.A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering.”

5.Whitelist (known goods). A Whitelist is a list of “”known good inputs””. A Whitelist is basically a list which says “”A, B and C is good (and everything else is bad)””.

6.Blacklist (known bads). A Blacklist is a list of “”known bad inputs””. A Blacklist is basically a list which says “”A, B and C is bad (and everything else is good)””.”

7.Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized format for efficient transmission or storage. Decoding is the opposite process — the conversion of an encoded format back into the original sequence of characters.

8.UNICODE:Unicode is a character encoding standard that has widespread acceptance.Basically, “computers just deal with numbers. They store letters and other characters by assigning a number for each one. Before Unicode was invented, there were hundreds of different encoding systems for assigning these numbers. No single encoding could contain enough characters.1” This has been the problem we, in SIL, have often run into. If you are using a legacy encoding your font conflicts with the font someone in another area of the world uses. You might have an  in your font while someplace else someone used a  at the same codepoint. Your files are incompatible. Unicode provides a unique number for every character and so you do not have this problem if you use Unicode. If your document calls for U+0289  it will be clear to any computer program what the character should be.UTF-8 UTF-16 UTF-16BE UTF-16LE UTF-32 UTF-32BE UTF-32LE

9.An independent software vendor (ISV) is an organization specializing in making or selling software, designed for mass or niche markets. This is in contrast to software developed for in-house use only within an organization or software designed or adapted for a single, specific customer.

10. “Itempotent : An operation is idempotent if invoking it once has the same effect as invoking it more than once”

11. Memcached (Mem-Cache-D) is a general-purpose distributed memory caching system. It is often used to speed up dynamic database-driven websites by caching data and objects in RAM to reduce the number of times an external data source (such as a database or API) must be read.

12. The CAP theorem states that out of three basic properties — Consistency, Availability and Partition Tolerance — only two are achievable at any given time in a distributed system.

13. The same-origin policy restricts how a document or script loaded from one origin can interact with a resource from another origin. It is a critical security mechanism for isolating potentially malicious documents.Two pages have the same origin if the protocol, port (if one is specified), and host are the same for both pages.

14.According to the Microsoft Developer Network, HttpOnly is an additional flag included in a Set-Cookie HTTP response header. Using the HttpOnly flag when generating a cookie helps mitigate the risk of client side script accessing the protected cookie (if the browser supports it).Nov 12, 2014

14. HATEOAS, an abbreviation for Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State, is a constraint of the REST application architecture that distinguishes it from most other network application architectures. The principle is that a client interacts with a network application entirely through hypermedia provided dynamically by application servers. A REST client needs no prior knowledge about how to interact with any particular application or server beyond a generic understanding of hypermedia. By contrast, in a service-oriented architecture (SOA), clients and servers interact through a fixed interface shared through documentation or an interface description language (IDL).

15.Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) that allows clients to perform remote Web content authoring operations.The WebDAV protocol provides a framework for users to create, change and move documents on a server, typically a web server or web share.

16. Interoperable – support with multiple devices

17.The Internet of Things (IoT), also called Internet of Everything[1] or Network of Everything,[2] is the network of physical objects or “things” embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and connectivity to enable objects to exchange data with the production, operator and/or other connected devices based on the infrastructure of International Telecommunication Union’s Global Standards Initiative.[3]

18.A distributed system is a software system in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages. The components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal.

19.Throughput is a term used in information technology that indicates how many units of information can be processed in a set amount of time.

20.Interoperability is a property of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, present or future, without any restricted access or implementation.[

21.A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1. Although computers usually provide instructions that can test and manipulate bits, they generally are designed to store data and execute instructions in bit multiples called bytes.

22.”Structural Pattern – simplest way realize relationship between objects, how to glue different pieces together in a flexible and extensible fashion. loose coupling. Adaptor, bridge, composition, facade,flyweight, proxy

23. Behavioural Pattern – concerned with assiging responsibilities between objects, encapsulating behaviour in object itself, communicate between objects.Decouple senders and recievers. How a group of peers objects can perform a task. chain of responsibility, state, strategy, command, interpretor, mediator, observer, template, visitor”

24. PolyGlot:


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